Australia, the birth of a nation, key dates

22 April 2013 by

A. Discovery and colonization

- -40 000 b.c: arrival of the first aborigines from New Guinea
- -20 000 bc: first rock paintings in Kakadu (North of Australia)

- 1504: Sir Binot Paulmier de Gonneville discovers by chance a part of Australia. He is the true discoverer of what he calls the “Great Austral land”… until the historians offers proof that this beautiful land he found on his road to Indies war in reality a part of the coast of Brazil.

- 1605: The Dutch explorer William Janz arrives in a part of Australia that he baptize “New Holland”.

- 1606: The Spanish Luis Vaez de Torres goes through the strait between the north-east of Australia and New-Guinea.

- 1642: Abel Tasman, another Dutch, discovers an Island in the south of Australia, that will become Tasmania.

- 1688: The English William Dampier, a corsair, explores the North-West coast of Australia.

- 1770: James Cook, sailor, cartographer and astronomer, is sent by England for a voyage with a scientist purpose with seven specialists like Joseph Banks, a famous botanist, or Parkinson, a drawer. Their boat was called “The Endeavour”. They arrive on the 29th of April in the place of the future Sydney, a bay with so magnificent plants that they baptize it the Botany Bay.

- 1788: The first group of convict arrives in Port Jackson, in Sydney. The New South Wales is created and becomes an English colony in 1823.

- 1851: beginning of the Gold Rush.

- 1868: arrival of the last convict ship.

- 1901: Creation of the Federation of Australia.

B. Australia and modernity

- 1918: Gallipoli Battle. The Anzac Day commemorate this fatal day for the Australian army.

- 1924: The vote is compulsory for Australian citizens.

- 1927: Canberra become the capital of Australia.

- 1948: Australian Citizenship Act 1948, the aboriginals obtains the Australian citizenship.

- 1962: The right to vote is granted to aboriginal people.

- 1967: After a referendum, the aboriginals are recognized as a part of the Australian people. In 1971, they are integrated into statistics.

- 1976: Aboriginal Land Right Act is voted for Northern Territory

- 1986: Australia Act. This consecrate the independence of Australia.

- 1993: The Native Title Act establish a law court in charge of the dispute over land ownership.

- 1999: 54,8% of the population reject the Republic and choose to stay monarchic

- 2007: Australian Citizenship Act 2007, which impose a test of citizenship.

- 2008: the prime minister Kevin Rudd apologies officially to the aboriginal people.

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